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The chronological path of the selected substances was reconstructed from scientifc articles obtained from the Pub buy 100 mg kamagra soft amex. In this preliminary analysis buy discount kamagra soft 100mg, two indicators32 were used to identify the critical incidents buy cheap kamagra soft 100mg on line, type of research setting and critical decision-making incidents. Correspondence analysis, a technique for decomposing chi squares into linear factors, offers an additional level of analysis by producing a schematic spatial representation of the relationships between classes of discourse through a number of factors extracted from a table of co-occurrences (Reinert, 2003). The factor axes, which Pommier (2004) maintains must be interpreted accordingly as tensive variables, reveal the contrasts between classes of discourse (Garnier, Accepted for publication). Garnier, Marinacci, Quesnel (Accepted for publication) Les représentations sociales de l’alimentation, de la santé et de la maladie de jeunes enfants. Pommier, Des variables tensives inscrites dans le texte: une interprétation dynamique de l’A. On Medline, 298 The Construction and Circulation of Knowledge at the Development Stage of Anticancer categories were selected: pharmaceutical companies, government bodies, the research community, the fnancial community, the legal community, hospitals, university centres, private laboratories, general scholarly output, and other. For the second indicator, the following critical decision- making incidents were categorized: approval, withdrawal, approval of a new indication, legal action or review, government restrictions, effects on cancer (antiangiogenic + anti-infammatory), effects on cancer (antiangiogenic properties), effects on cancer (anti-infammatory properties) and effects on cancer (other properties). The premises A description of the rooms and equipment helps cast light on laboratory activities and the way tasks are connected in terms of their diversity and level of conceptualization. The instruments in the freezer room are used to hold the cell tissue, solutions, fuids, staining solutions, and various products used in experiments. The activity in these rooms comprises the operations that precede actual biochemical testing. The tests begin only in stage four, in the preparation room, and continue in the experiment room. The instrumentation in these rooms includes a spectrophotometer and a fuoroscan in the preparation room; these devices are used to separate components from a culture medium or cells in order too divide up and recover proteins so that they can be profled. The experiment room is the main room where proteins are purifed and samples are collected and where the fnal state is checked with a computer and printer. In fact, most of the operations in the laboratories can be repeated, moved around and even interchanged. For example, freezing may be performed at any stage of the experiment, but it cannot be the starting point if the tissue sample source is fresh. The same applies to centrifugation, used for the fragmentation of samples, since it may occur before or after an experiment, depending the search was made using the generic name of the drug. The abstracts and news articles were then placed and classifed in chronological order in an Excel table in accordance with the research setting or institution concerned as recorded in the news item (for the dailies) or to which the primary author was linked (for Medline) (grouping carried out in accordance with emerging institutional categories). Each abstract or press item represented an event, that is, research results (especially for the scientifc feld) or information that marked the pathway of the drug. Thus all the scientifc abstracts reporting results of studies of the medication or substance in question were included in the analyses, but only news items with information that could impact on the future of the drug were considered (by consensus of the analysts) to the exclusion of individual comments. It may go from point 1 to point 6 by looping around within the rooms or just as easily move in a single loop from point 1 to point 6. Point 6 is the computer room and is used to look for scholarly articles on the Internet and to refne the experimentation projects. Different technical aspects are involved in these instruments and bring into play specialized knowledge from outside the realm of pure biology, such as physics, chemistry and information technology. The laboratories also include offces and meeting rooms that are used at all stages of research. The facilities of the northern, regional-university laboratory differ signifcantly from those of the frst two. Much of the activity in this unit involves the description of compounds of essential oils and plant extracts from the boreal forest, so the role of the isolation, extraction and purifcation rooms is crucial. Once the extracts are prepared or the fnal products isolated and purifed, they can be sent on to the biology laboratories where biological activity tests can be conducted. On the biology side, a microbiology room and a tissue culture room are available, but they are separated from each other. These two rooms connect with a central room where the devices and computers for collecting and analyzing data are located. A molecular biology room also adjoins the laboratory so that research can be pursued further and the mechanism of action of the biopharmaceutical agents isolated by the chemists can be elucidated.

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Its actual strength was assessed against a toxin of confrmed high potency that Behring had extracted from two-years-old diphtheria cultures discount 100 mg kamagra soft with visa. The standard toxin was now made and defned by Behring and Ehrlich kamagra soft 100mg on line, and they asserted that no one had the right to reference their „titer“ without express permission generic kamagra soft 100 mg with amex. Secondly, a network of strategic cooperation between bacteriological research, clinicians, pharmaceutical enterprises, and state authorities developed around the serum: the concept of the serum’s „value” bridged the differences between these diverse interest groups because it was broad and fexible enough to be translated from a laboratory to a therapeutic measure and because it assumed an economic and a public health value. Indeed, Behring was enough of a businessman to recognize the advantages of having a metric for the „value” of the serum and of course the Farbwerke Hoechst were eager to have such a useful accounting tool. Thus, it was probably no accident that Behring redefned the evaluation method at the same time that Wernicke and Aronson were presenting their dog-sera. Aronson in particular threatened Behring’s ambitious plans because he too was aiming to enter the private sector. Considering Wernicke’s publication on dog-sera, it’s noteworthy that he felt obliged to reassess the value of his sera based on the newly developed method, because it was viewed as being more rational and exact. See the report of Laubenheimer to the board of Hoechst („Bericht an Aufsichtsrat“, 0. On the basis of his evaluation method, Behring tried to denigrate the serum and to call Aronson’s scientifc credentials into question, alleging that he had provided unreliable specifcations for the „therapeutic value” of Schering’s serum and was motivated only by its potential „monetary value”. In addition, their method became institutionalized once a central state institute was established in the German Reich in 1895. Unlike his German colleagues, Roux was under no pressure to maneuver through such a point of passage, primarily because in France value comparison was of less eminent importance: there it did not serve to control competing providers because the Pasteur Institute in Paris held a monopoly over serum-production. However, for the sake of comparability with the German sera, Roux made the effort to measure the serum using one of the accepted evaluation methods. He decided on the method published by Behring and Wernicke in 189 ,108 which he and Vaillard had already used in a modifed form for measuring tetanus serum. This meant that for Roux and his collaborators the living body and its ability to respond was an obligatory point of passage between the injection of the serum and the infection. On the other side of the Franco-Prussian border, Behring and his antitoxin hypothesis could basically rationalize away the vital variability of the guinea pigs. His ideal test animal was not regarded as an organism which reacted individually, but merely as a standardized indexing device. Roux and his collaborators varied the method by injecting pure toxin instead of diphtheria culture (Roux and Martin 1894, p. Analogously, Gradmann has pointed to the instrumentalization of animals as „cultural media“ in the experimental system of Robert Koch (Christoph Gradmann, „Das Maß der Krankheit - das pathologische Tierexperiment in der medizinischen Bakteriologie Robert 92 French and German Diphtheria Serum Research and the Reconfguration of Cultural Boundaries Conclusion The history of diphtheria serum research in Berlin and Paris tells us much about the differences between the two research cultures. In this article I have described the methods of chemical weakening versus biological attenuation of the diphtheria bacteria (or toxin) that comprised an important technical basis for immunization. I have also discussed the humoral versus cellular or phagocytic theories of immunity, and fnally the in vitro- versus „vital response” method of evaluating the serum. These differences were effected by the respective research traditions in Berlin and Paris, but they were also reconfgured in the interplay of the protagonists on both sides of the Franco-Prussian border in efforts to demarcate and profle their concepts and theories. These dynamic interrelations were at the same time also bridging the research activities of Roux/ Metschnikoff and Behring: Thus, I have shown how the researchers developed a considerable scientifc interest in each other and how both Roux and Behring drew on each other’s basic experimental techniques. Conceptualizing the relationship as dynamic interplay between the „two cultures of bacteriology“ in Paris and Berlin takes us away from the well-worn dichotomies of „national“ or „personal rivalry“ versus „cooperation“. Of course, the present article treats only a very short timeframe and cannot serve as a basis for generalizations about the history of Koch’s and Pasteur’s research schools as a whole. But this micro-study at least suggests that a shift in focus could lead to a subtler picture of the story than one based on the notion of essentially separate cultural worlds of science that only occasionally cooperate. Instead it shows the value of closely analyzing the multi-layered forms of interactions that not only demarcate research schools from one another, but also bind them together. Studien im Anschluß an Georges Canghuilhem, edited by Cornelius Borck, Volker Hess and Henning Schmidgen, 71-90. Jonathan Simon Abstract1 While it would be reassuring to believe that state regulation of drugs refects the best available response to any given public health problem, it is clearly wishful thinking.

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The net result is that the usual discrimination which takes place in reading of codons during translation is relaxed somewhat buy 100mg kamagra soft otc, and allows for incorporation of an amino acid generic kamagra soft 100 mg overnight delivery, rather than termination of translation occurring generic kamagra soft 100mg with visa. Specically, the expression of dystrophin in cultured mdx muscle cells as well as in vivo in the mdx mouse itself was initially demonstrated using genta- micin 11. View Online 282 Chapter 11 All were undertaken using a relatively conservative trial design, with only small patient cohorts (4–10 subjects) and limited duration of dosing (2 weeks in total), presumably due to concerns regarding the toxicological prole of the compound class. Encouragingly, gentamicin appeared to be well toler- ated in patients, with no signs of toxicity. At the end of the study, muscle biopsies revealed that dystrophin levels in several of these patients increased signicantly, from <5% to over 15%. This is particularly striking, because protein levels have reached a point that is thought to be therapeu- tically relevant based on the efficacy results previously noted for other read- through agents. Of more concern was the observation that in one subject an immune system T-cell response was noted, although whether this was related to the expression of dystrophin was unclear. It does highlight, however, that careful monitoring of subjects for propensity of immunological adverse events is critical in this paediatric patient population (both pre- and post-trial), particularly due to the chronic dosing anticipated for the agents. Aside from the well-known dose-limiting toxicological liabilities of ami- noglycosides, particularly ototoxicity105 and nephrotoxicity,106 the necessary intravenous dosing route is not ideal for a long-term daily dosing regimen, although it is noteworthy that members of the compound class, when administered for up to 6 months in the aforementioned studies, had not demonstrated any signicant issues or liabilities at the dose levels used. View Online Drug Discovery Approaches for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases 283 premature stop codon, vide infra); both of these latter concerns would be circumvented by the use of orally available small-molecule drugs. Compounds that were able to promote read- through of this premature stop codon would therefore result in an increased amount of luciferase expression, and more luminescence. The result of this screen was identication of a series of hit compounds based on an oxadiazole core, which were subsequently optimised further using conventional library- based medicinal chemistry synthesis techniques. All in all, following the high-throughput screen, approximately 3500 compounds were synthesised and evaluated in follow-up biological tests. Given the putative mode of action of the compound, it might be antici- pated that any compounds discovered using this paradigm would similarly have the potential to nd utility as a therapeutic agent for use in other diseases caused by premature stop codons. In terms of target plasma concentration for efficacy, detailed information on the plasma levels required to see a therapeutic effect were not available, but the pre-clinical efficacy models used had suggested that maintaining plasma À1 concentrations between 2 and 10 mgmL would prove efficacious. Accord- ingly, these were the trough levels targeted during the clinical studies for the compound. In addition, a qualitative assessment of drug taste (palatability) of the orally delivered liquid suspension was included in the trial design, again to cater for the intended paediatric patients. Based on the dose dependence of these events, the investigators concluded that the occurrences were linked to Cmax plasma levels of drug. In line with the investigators’ expectations, no toxicological issues were encountered. Critically, given the compound mode of action, analysis of blood samples for evidence of non- selective read-through of stop codons was also undertaken by looking for extended length marker proteins. Although the drug was well tolerated and this latter result was encouraging, it was not statisti- cally signicant, and the study was discontinued. Further- more, the confounding activity in the rey luciferase assay was conrmed. The assay protocol was validated using ataxia-telangiectasia as a disease model, and in separate experiments also established that the treatment of mdx cells with the compounds resulted in the restoration of dystrophin expression. Although a detailed evaluation of the compound’s pharmacokinetics was not reported, bioanalysis of 11. Interestingly no parent compound was detectable in plasma at any time point following intraperi- toneal injection, although levels up to around 3 mM were detected in most muscles sampled, including the heart. This observation is of particular relevance for a muscular dystrophy therapeutic where cardiac muscle has historically proven difficult to target with drugs. Based on the in vitro cellular data, compound levels of between 2 and 10 mM would be predicted to increase dystrophin levels by around 1–3%, and indeed this is what was Figure 11. View Online Drug Discovery Approaches for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases 287 observed when various types of muscle were analysed for dystrophin-positive bres. More importantly, these positive histological data translated to functional benet following treatment with 11.

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